Roots and Stems



ante‑                       before                           anteroom

re‑                           back; again                return

retro-                      backward; behind    retroactive

pre‑                         before                         pre‑war

post‑                       after                            postpone

fin                             end                           final

ad‑                            to; toward                    advance

pro‑                         for; forth                    pronoun; proceed

de‑                          from; down; away      descend

cata-                       down, completely      catastrophe


2 With Not Against

con‑-      with; together                      conglomerate

com‑-      with; together                        companion

cora-  -      with; together                       cora

an-                     not, without                atypical

in-                               not                            incorrect

im-                              not                            impossible

ir-                                not                         irrational

il-                                  not                        illogical

non-                         not                          nonconformist

un‑                          not                              unwise

dis                            not; apart                 disapprove

di                              apart                             divorce

contra‑/counter-     against                         counteract

anti‑                          against                         anti‑nuke


3 NUMBERS THROUGH 10 (28 points)


uni‑                         one                             unilateral

mono‑                      one                            monogram

pri-                          one; first                  primary                          

arch/archi                rule, first, chief          archenemy

bi‑/bin-                     two                            bifocal

ambi-                        both                            ambivalent

tri‑                           three                           triple

quad‑                       four                          quadruplets

quint                        five                           quintuplets

pent                         five                           pentagon

hex                          six                            hexagon

sept                          seven                       september

oct                           eight                        october

dec‑                          ten                           decade


4 NUMBERS ABOVE 10 (20 points)


cent‑                         hundred                       century

mil(l)‑                        thousand(th)                   millennium

kilo‑                          thousand                   kilowatt

nano-                       millionth                    nanoseco

semi‑                       half                             semicircle

hemi‑                        half                           hemisphere

poly‑                       many                          polygon

multi‑                       many                        multitude

pan‑                            all; every                pandemic

omni-                          all                            omnipotent


bio                            life                                 biology

viv/i/vit/vi               life                                   survive

capit                         head                             decapitate

cephal/o                   head                             hydrocephalic

psych                       mind                           psychology

cardi/o                      heart                             cardiogram

hemo/em                  blood                        hemophilia

carn/carni                flesh, meat                   carnivore

corp/o, corpor         body                             corporal

derm                         skin                               dermatology

man/u/i                   hand                       manipulate

ped/i/-pede/pod       foot                         centipede

glott                          tongue                     glottal       

 lingu                     tongue; language         linguistics


hypo‑                       below                         hypodermic

sub‑                          under                          subway

hyper‑                      above; over                hyperactive

super‑                       above; over               superintendent

ecto/exo-                      outside                 ectothermic

exo-                            outside                   exoskeleton

endo-                        inside                       endocarditis

epi-                           after, outside, over          epilogue

extra‑, extro-            outside, beyond          extravagant     



tele‑                          far                               telescope

inter‑                         between; among     intertwine

intra‑, intro-             within, inward         intramural

en-, em-                    in                               energy

e , ex                         out of                       exonerate

trans                       across                        transfer

dia-                           through; across          diaphanous

circum                      around                         circumference

peri-                         around, surround      periscope

mid/medi-               middle; halfway        midterm medium

equi‑                    equal                  equilateral equidistance

graph/gram        write; record                 autograph

scrib/scrip             write                           scripture

bibl/i/o                     book                             Bible

spec/t/spic            look at; examine        spectator

scop, -scope             view; examine           endoscope

vid/vis                    see                              evident

chrom                       color                             monochromatic

clar                            clear                              clarity

phos/phot                 light                    photograph  phosphorescence                                                                  

luc/lus/lumen            light                        translucent;  Illuminate


8 PHYSICAL WORLD (36 points)

cosmo                      universe, world           cosmopolitan  

astro/aster/astr       star                               astronomy

sol                           sun                             parasol

heli/o                        sun                           heliocentric

aqua                         water                            aquatic

hydr/o                      water                        hydrant

mar/e                          sea                          maritime

lun/luni                      moon                           lunar

geo                           earth                              geography

terra                         earth; land                    terrain

lith                            stone                       monolith

log/o/ology       study of; word reason       Geology; dialogue 

onomy    system of rule or laws about a topic  agronomy

zo                         animal                              zoology

greg                          flock                                    congregation

avi                             bird/fly                               aviation

agri/agro                  field                               agriculture

the/o                       God                                      atheist

Sound Law

aud                           hear                              auditory

phon/e                       sound                     telephone

voc/vok                  call, voice                  vocal/provoke

dic/dict                     say, speak                   dictate

spir/o                      breathe                       respiration

vic/vinc                     conquer                     victory

capt                          take, hold, seize          capture

-cracy/crat               govern                         democracy

leg                             law                            legal

duc, duct                 lead                           educate

junct                       join                           conjunction



ama/ami/amor      love, friendship             amorous, amiable       

 mis-/miso               hate                           misanthropic

cred                         believe                         incredible

fid                            trust                           infidelity

tom/tome                 cut                           appendectomy

-sect                        cut                          dissect

-cide, cis                  kill; cut                    suicide, excision

path/o/pathy           feeling; disease        empathetic

phil/o/phile             love; affinity for         bibliophile

mania                      excessive desire       kleptomania

-phobia                    unreasonable fear of        agoraphobia

-itis -titis                  inflammation of          dermatitis 

sent/sens               feel; think                   presentiment

sci                           know                           prescient



ortho                          straight, correct       orthodontics

cycl/o                       circle, wheel                bicycle

later                          side                           unilateral

macro-                        large, long             macroscopic

magni                         large                       magnify

micro                          very small              microscope

meter/metr              measure                      thermometer

morph/o                     form; shape                amorphous

mut                             change                        mutation

meta-                          change; beyond     metamorphosis

hetero                       different, other            heterogeneous

homo/homeo           same, similar,              homonym equal

para                            similar                     paraphrase

syn-, sym-, syl-     together, same               synthesis


11 PEOPLE (28 points)

anthrop/o                man, human                 anthropology

andr/o                      man, male                     android

hom/o                       man                           homicide

frater                         brother                     fraternal

pater/patri                  father                      paternal

auto‑                         self; alone                    automatic

ego                           self                            egotistical 

dem                           people                      democracy

gyn                           woman; female        gynecology

soror                       sister                          sorority

mater/matr                 mother                    maternal

xen/o                      foreign/alien               xenophobic


-ist                 someone who believe in or studies something

-er      a. one who / b. verb diminuation   runner/tinker



tox                           poison                        toxemia

ver                          true                             verity

pseud/o                 false                            pseudopod

bene‑                   good; well                   benefit

eu-                       good, well                euphoria

caco-                   bad, ill                          cacophony

dys-                bad, difficult abnormal,impaired           dysfunctional

mal‑                    bad                         maladjusted

pac                      peace                      pacific

bel(l)                     war                                bellicose

mis‑                     wrong                     mistake misnomer

nasc/nat                     birth; born             prenatal; nascent

gen/gon                     birth; origin         genesis

neo‑                            new                         neophyte

nov                             new                         renovate

sen                             old                              senile

necr/o                        dead, death           necropolis

mort/mor                   death                      immortal

temp                          time                             temporary

chron                        time                           chronological

ann/enn                   year                              annual